Blood: Upper Layer, Buffy Coat, Lower Layer, and Anti-Coagulants

Map summary:

This map is broken down into two parts I. the anti-coagulants used in blood analysis (which for some incredibly stupid reason, finds its way on many exams that healthcare students need to take. Note that calcium precipitates with phosphate which is pretty ubiquitous in the cell therefore EDTA is necessary for any genetic testing. and II: the components of blood that we can observed via centrifugation and their associated components.

There are three main layers of blood after centrifugation (separation by density and viscosity)

-Upper layer (plasma)

-Buffy coat (leukocytes and plateles)

-Lower layer (Red blood corpuscles aka bags of hemoglobin)

Neurotransmitters: Biogenic Amines, Polypeptides, Amino acids, Gases, lipids and purines (video)

After watching these videos you should have a familiar understanding of the structure, function, and associated signal response with the following neurotransmitters and their subsequent receptors.

Purines, lipids, and gases (video)

Biogenic Amines (video)

Amino acids and peptides (video)

As always if you have any questions or need specific help feel free to book an appointment and I would be happy to help.

Translation: Amino acids and exceptions to the genetic code (concept map)

Map summary:

Codons on mRNA pair with anti-codons on TRNA

Genetic code is redundant ( 64 different codons for 20 amino acids)

Redundancy protects from mutation (in principle)

Exceptions to the genetic code: Mitochondria and protists have different start and stop codon identities,

Lastly there are the two nonstandard amino acids which are used via transnational recoding and are not a part of the genetic code itself.